Types of data
Major measures of data fall into four categories: demographics, student learning, school processes, and perceptions. Used in combinations, these measures can provide powerful pictures that help schools understand the effectiveness of teaching and learning happening in their building, and ultimately helps make school leaders and teachers make sound decisions and changes.
Statistical characteristics of human populations; descriptive information about the school community. Examples include attendance, enrollment, grade level, ethnicity, gender, native language, crime rate, socioeconomic status.
What students know and are able to do as a result of their schooling. Examples include standardized, norm-referenced, and criterion referenced tests; performance and standards-based assessments; teacher-made tests; grades and grade point averages.
Educational and psychological events and practices occurring in the classroom (e.g., instructional strategies) and at the school level (e.g., academic programs); what educators do to produce results. Examples include instructional and learning strategies; instructional time and environment; organization of instructional components; assessment practices; classroom management; relationships among students; relationship among educators; relationships among students and educators.
Individual views, values, and beliefs regarding the way the world operates. Examples include student views of teachers; teacher satisfaction with adminstration; school safety.